Answers For Atheism

Statements That Evolutionists Cannot Answer

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EvolutionBy Meranda Devan-

Logic is defined as being reasonable or having sound sense. Science is the study of knowledge based on facts and laws. In science, the burden of evidence is on the proposer of the theory. So, in this case, the evolutionists have the burden of providing evidence for their proposed ideas. Good science should be backed by evidence demonstrating feasibility.

“Faith is the great cop-out, the great excuse to evade the need the need to think and evaluate evidence” Richard Dawkins

After all, mathematics, scientific laws and observed processes are supposed to form the basis of all scientific explanation. If none of these provides support for Darwinian macroevolution, then why on earth should we accept it? Indeed, why does macroevolution belong in the province of science at all, if its scientific basis cannot be demonstrated? Macroevolution, microevolution and chemistry: the devil is in the details – Dr. V. J. Torley – February 27, 2013 uncommondescent.com

Let’s rely upon resources of logic and make some observations:

FLAWS In Millions Of Years

– Assumptions Millions of Years?? – Has the speed of light always been constant with time? The speed of light may be different in space. We have only been able to measure the speed of light within the areas we have reach. It is possible that it travels more quickly through space when it is not affected by gravitational fields. Some people say it would take billions of years from light to travel from these far away objects to us, then assumes configurations about the universe which may not be true. The way you model the universe and distribute the mass within it, greatly affects how long it is required from light to get from there to here. Taken from a Seminar “Young Earth – Young Universe” by Spike Psarris

-The Earth’s Magnetic Field Is Decaying Rapidly – this decay is happening at a constant (if not decreasing) rate. At this rate, 8000 years ago the earth’s magnetism would have equaled that of a magnetic star, a highly unlikely occurrence. Also, if electric currents in the earth’s core are responsible for the earth’s magnetism, the heat generated by these currents 20,000 years ago would have dissolved the earth.

-The Earth’s Rotation Is Slowing- The spin rate of the earth is slowing .00002 second per year. If the earth were the billions of years old that the evolutionists say it is, the centrifugal force would have notably deformed the earth.

-The Sun’s Diameter Is Shrinking – the diameter is shrinking at the rate of five feet per hour. At this rate, life could not have existed on the earth 100,000 years ago. For the theory of evolution to be possible, the sun had to have existed throughout the duration of the evolutionary time scale. Life as we know it could not have developed or exist without the sun. A study by Russian scientists, estimated the age based on sun’s rate of nuclear fusion. Russian scientists found the sun to be at most – 10,000-30,000 years old.

– The Stellar Evolution – Initial Conditions, how did the stars form, and where did they come from? The whole Stellar Evolution model ASSUMES that stars formed from clouds of gas early in the big bang universe. The bible tells us something different. The bible tells us God created the stars for his glory. 1 Corinthians 15:41 – “The sun has one kind of glory, while the moon and stars each have another kind. And even the stars differ from each other in their glory.”

-Old Sun??? We are told the sun is 4.5 billions of years old. They tell us all the physics to get this date, yet the assumptions that are made to get that date are never revealed. They tell us that the sun was made from a cloud of gas, then collapsed into a disk shape, which takes billions of years. Again, this is only an assumption, not a fact.

Solar astronomer John Eddy commented:

“I suspect … that the sun is 4.5 billion years old. However, given some new and unexpected results to the contrary, and some time for some frantic recalculations and theoretical readjustment, I suspect that we could live with Bishop Ussher’s value for the age of the Earth and Sun [about 6,000 years]. I don’t think there is much in the way of observational evidence to conflict with that.’ Do we have any OBSERVATIONAL Findings to conflict with this?

Saturn has become yet another example of a young earth. The rings we can see on Saturn are belts of debris or dirt, organized by size. Astronomers have calculated that it would only take a couple hundred million years for Saturns rings to be darkened, yet they are quite bright. Here is another instance that the MAXIMUM age would be a couple million years, not 4.5 BILLION years.

– Insolitus Moon Located Near Saturn– Insolitus according to the secular model is too old to be geologically active. If Insolitus was formed millions of years ago from a gas cloud, then it should have cooled off long ago.

– Titan is the largest moon of Saturn, and is also known for it’s atmosphere. In that atmosphere astronomers have discovered methane. Methane gets broken down by sunlight quite rapidly, which produces ethane. They have calculated that it would only take 10 million years to break down all the methane in Titan’s atmosphere. If our solar system is 4.5 billion years, we would also find a vast reservoir of growing ethane, but we don’t. Here again, we see a maximum age of 10 million years, certainly not several billion.

– Mercury Testifies To A Young Solar System. Mercury has a magnetic field. According to the secular model, it should have cooled off long ago, thus, it shouldn’t have a magnetic field anymore. They found more evidence that the field is also decaying very rapidly. It has gone down 7.8 % since it’s first measurement in the 1970’s. So we can then see problems with the billions of years model. Instead we see a decay, which contradicts an old solar system model.

-Earths Population Doesn’t Show Millions Of Years -Evolutionists have claimed that man around 1 to 2 million years old. Expert Thomas R. Malthus discovered human populations have tended to increase geometrically with time. (His equations start with the initial population of 2 people, after T years there would be 4 people, after 2T years 8 people, after 3T years 16 people, etc). History has shown to be consistent with this theory. This present population indicates that there have been 30 doublings (T) in history. This would carry us back to about 3500 B.C. which was the time of Noah’s flood. The Good Reporters Blog

  • If the first man appeared 1 million years ago as Evolutionists claim, and these conservative growth rates applied during that period, the world’s population would be, at present, 10 with 27,000 zeroes after it. However, no more that 10 with 100 zeroes after it could be packed on the earth and that would be wall to wall people. Where have all these people gone? Shouldn’t their bones have at least remained? Population statistics tell us the earth isn’t that old.

The Universe Shows A Designer

FINE Tuning Reveals A Designed Universe- The Laws of Thermodynamics show the universe must have had a beginning. The First Law of Thermodynamics says that there is only a finite amount of energy and the Second Law says that the amount of available energy is continually decreasing. So, could it exist for billions of years? More importantly, The Second Law of Thermodynamics tells us that a system will always go from order to disorder unless there is a plan or outside intelligence to organize it.World-renowned evolutionist Isaac Asimov when discussing the Second Law of Thermodynamics said: “Another way of stating the second law then is: ‘The universe is constantly getting more disorderly!'”

-The Universe Cannot Create From Nothing; The Complexity Is Astounding -In the book , misleadingly entitled The Grand Design, Steven Hawking makes the adventurous claim that “because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing.” OH REALLY?? Is that accurate?

The existence of a universe that allows human life to live is due to conditions that have been fined-tuned to the degree that is beyond comprehension. Take the following examples into consideration:

  • Take for consideration that If earth were even a few hundred miles closer or further away from the sun, it would not be capable of supporting much of the life it currently does.
  • If the elements in our atmosphere were even a few percentage points different, every living thing on earth would die. To achieve the precise rate and timing of the cosmic slowing down and speeding up.
  • The Strength of Gravity & the Atomic Weak Force: Physicist P. C. W. Davies concludes that a small change in the strength of gravity or of the atomic weak force would have prevented a universe that permits our existence. P. C. W. Davies argues that this small change is as small as one part in 10100
  • Volume of the phase space of possible universes: Roger Penrose of Oxford University explains that the creator would have to aim for a very tiny volume of the “phase space of possible universes” to create a universe that resembles our own. This is quite technical science, but we should ask the question: how tiny is this volume? According to Penrose the volume would be 1/10 to the power of X which is 10123. The precision required to produce a universe that resembles our own is much greater than the precision that would be required to hit one proton if the universe were a dartboard!

The Below characteristics of the universe must be fixed with exacting precision.

The Mass Density (cannot vary by more than) 1060 Power
The Space Energy density (cannot vary by more than) One part 1 IN 10120th power
Ratio of Electrons:Protons (cannot vary by more than) 1 IN 1037 Power
Ratio of Electromagnetic (cannot vary by more than) 1 IN 1040 Power
Force: Gravity Protons (cannot vary by more than) 1 IN 1040 Power
Expansion Rate of Universe Protons (cannot vary by more than) 1 IN 1055 Power
Mass of Universe Protons (cannot vary by more than) 1 IN 1059 Power
Cosmological Constant Protons (cannot vary by more than) 1 IN 10120th Power
Taken from – God and Science
People who support the theory of Evolution would have us believe that things become more organized and complex when left to themselves!
– Could There Be Life On Other Planets?  In Inspired Evidence By Bruce Malone, he gives us the temperatures for other places in our solar system, making it impossible to hold any life – Mercury has extreme temperatures, any where from 870F (466 C) in the sun, -300F (-184 C) in the dark with an atmosphere of un-breathable hydrogen and helium. Venus contains temperatures day or night at 900 F (842 C) The air pressure on Venus is 100 times greater than the earth.  Mars, not enough oxygen to breath, lows of -100 F (-73 C) Jupiter’s air is filled with poisonous hydrogen sulfide, in addition to cosmic radiation and falling meteors and magnetic storms.  Saturn’s temperatures are cold -216 F (-138 C).  Winds blow at 1,118 mph.  Clouds are made up of ammonia crystals.  Uranus contains a poisonous atmosphere, with temperatures at -355 F (-215 C) Neptune winds blow at 1,300 mph, and only receives one-tenth of the sunlight compared to the earth.  The moon has no rain, no wind, no clouds, and the temperatures make it inhabitable.  253 F, (123 C), night time temp -384 F, (-231 C)  The earth was designed specifically for us to live in. 

-The Physics of the Small and Large: What is the Bridge Between Them? Roger Penrose
Excerpt: “The time-asymmetry is fundamentally connected to with the Second Law of Thermodynamics: indeed, the extraordinarily special nature (to a greater precision than about 1 in 10^10^123, in terms of phase-space volume) can be identified as the “source” of the Second Law (Entropy).” –Source

How Special Was The Big Bang? – Roger Penrose ” This now tells us how precise the Creator’s aim must have been: namely to an accuracy of one part in 10^10^123. Source- the Emperor’s New Mind, Penrose, pp 339-345 – 1989)

Hours and DaysFolding wet sediment becomes rock. Flood evidence, Burlingame Canyon 6 Days, Canyon Lake Corge, Glen Canyon Dam- Taken from a Seminar “Young Earth – Young Universe” by Spike Psarris

– Mt. St. Helens Eruption Destroys The Million Year Theory. A six-hundred foot layer of debris, consisting of 200 million cubic yards of volcanic ash and fragments of rock spilled out. A small eruption of water provided enough force to carve a 150-feet long canyon in these sedimentary layers. The same layers can be observed to those found in the Grand Canyon. The canyon is measured to be 1/40th the size of the Grand Canyon. Layers were formed in hours and days, not millions of years as many claim. This example, like many others show the sheer power of water is much greater than expected, and that it does not take millions of years to form a canyon. Check some pictures of Mt St Helens.

Potassium Argon Dating? Millions of Years? Dr. Steve Austin collected a seven-kilogram sample of dacite from the farthest-north slope of the lava dome of Mt. St. Helen’s, a volcano that erupted in the 1986. Austin collected samples in June 1992. The submitted samples were given back to him with a date of 340,000 to 2.8 million years, when in fact the sample was only a few years old. The potassium 40-argon 40 (K-Ar) dating shows flaws. Read more here

Faulty Strata Dating Methods- Canyons – Millions of Layers mean Millions of Years? That is what we have been told, but new information has come forth. The question IS – How quickly were those layers laid down? It has been proven that you can form a bunch of layers all at the same time, as water is flowing sideways. Is there any evidence for this? 1. We see a lot of fossils that show that fossils were laid rapidly. One fossil shows a fish eating another fish. This fish didn’t even have enough time to swallow his lunch.

Modern Science Dismantles Darwin’s Assumptions

So much has been proven since 1859,…. yet so many people continue to believe in evolution despite modern scientific data, and lack of evidence for evolution. Science has proven his ideas to be dead wrong.

-EVEN Darwin Admitted In “Origin Of Species” Without INTERMEDIATE FOSSILS, He Had NO THEORY. (Intermediate fossils are those that connect one species to another) There should be millions of them in the fossil record …. but paleontologists cannot find less than two examples. In the following quote, Darwin himself acknowledges the logical absurdity of a complex organ like the eye being formed using the natural processes he was suggesting in his theory. “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.” The Origin of Species, Charles Darwin, J.M. Dent & Sons ltd, London, 1971, page 167.

  • “Despite a close watch, we have witnessed no new species emerge in the wild in recorded history. Also, most remarkably, we have seen no new animal species emerge in domestic breeding. That includes no new species of fruitflies in hundreds of millions of generations in fruitfly studies, where both soft and harsh pressures have been deliberately applied to the fly populations to induce speciation. And in computer life, where the term “species” does not yet have meaning, we see no cascading emergence of entirely new kinds of variety beyond an initial burst. In the wild, in breeding, and in artificial life, we see the emergence of variation. But by the absence of greater change, we also clearly see that the limits of variation appear to be narrowly bounded, and often bounded within species.”Kevin Kelly from his book, “Out of Control” here

Cells Coming To Life By Accident Is Next To Impossible- Dr. James Coppedge, of the Center for Probability Research in Biology in California, made some amazing calculations pertaining to the idea of a single cell coming into existence by chance.

He considered in the same way a single protein molecule, and even a single gene. His discoveries are revolutionary. He computed a world in which the entire crust of the earth – all the oceans, all the atoms, and the whole crust were available. He then had these amino acids bind at a rate one and one-half trillion times faster than they do in nature. In computing the possibilities, he found that to provide a single protein molecule by chance combination would take 10, to the 262nd power, years.” (That is, the number 1 followed by 262 zeros.) “To get a single cell – the single smallest living cell known to mankind – which is called the mycroplasm hominis H39, would take 10, to the 119,841st power, years. That means that if you took thin pieces of paper and wrote 1 and then wrote zeros after (it), you would fill up the entire known universe with paper before you could ever even write that number. That is how many years it would take to make one living cell, smaller than any human cell!

– Cells Are Too Complex -What are the chances of a living cell to be formed by random processes? Dr. Harold Morowitz of Yale says it would require 239 individual protein molecules. The minimal number of amino acids in a protein molecule is 410. All these amino acids must form themselves into left-handed chains. This would be like flipping a coin 410 times and having it always come up heads! This would have to occur in the other 238 molecules also. So now the chances are 10 to the 29,345 power! It couldn’t happen. A single living cell could not come about by chance!

Evolution Is Based Upon Incalculable Probabilities-According to John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, the odds of assembling a single gene are between and 4-180 to 4-360. The implications of this are that there simply has not been enough time since the formation of the earth to try a number of nucleotide base combinations that can even remotely compare to these numbers! The odds against assembling the human genome spontaneously are incalculable. The probability of assembling the genome is between 4-180 to 4-110,000 and 4-360 to 4-110,000. These numbers give some feel for the unlikelihood of the species Homo sapiens. And if anyone were to accept evolution by chance, they would have to believe in a miracle as these numbers are so high!

  • “In discussions with biologists I met large difficulties when they apply the concept of ‘natural selection’ in a rather wide field, without being able to estimate the probability of the occurrence in a empirically given time of just those events, which have been important for the biological evolution. Treating the empirical time scale of the evolution theoretically as infinity they have then an easy game, apparently to avoid the concept of purposesiveness. While they pretend to stay in this way completely ‘scientific’ and ‘rational,’ they become actually very irrational, particularly because they use the word ‘chance’, not any longer combined with estimations of a mathematically defined probability, in its application to very rare single events more or less synonymous with the old word ‘miracle.'” Wolfgang Pauli (pp. 27-28) – Nobel Prize-Winning Physicist Wolfgang Pauli on the Empirical Problems with Neo-Darwinism – Casey Luskin – February 27, 2012 evolutionnews.org
  • “On the other hand, I disagree that Darwin’s theory is as `solid as any explanation in science.; Disagree? I regard the claim as preposterous. Quantum electrodynamics is accurate to thirteen or so decimal places; so, too, general relativity. A leaf trembling in the wrong way would suffice to shatter either theory. What can Darwinian theory offer in comparison?”
    (Berlinski, D., “A Scientific Scandal?: David Berlinski & Critics,” Commentary, July 8, 2003) Watch Dr. David Berlinski: Head Scratching Mathematicians – video here
  • Probabilities Of Life -A typical functional protein – 1 part in 10^175, The required enzymes for life – 1 part in 10^40,000, A living self replicating cell – 1 part in 10^340,000,000 – Don Johnson PhD. – 38 minute video
  • “The probability for the chance of formation of the smallest, simplest form of living organism known is 1 in 10^340,000,000. This number is 10 to the 340 millionth power! The size of this figure is truly staggering since there is only supposed to be approximately 10^80 (10 to the 80th power) electrons in the whole universe!”(Professor Harold Morowitz, Energy Flow In Biology pg. 99, Biophysicist of George Mason University)Dr. Morowitz did another probability calculation working from the thermodynamic perspective with a already existing cell and came up with this number:DID LIFE START BY CHANCE? Molecular biophysicist, Horold Morowitz (Yale University), calculated the odds of life beginning under natural conditions (spontaneous generation). He calculated, if one were to take the simplest living cell and break every chemical bond within it, the odds that the cell would reassemble under ideal natural conditions (the best possible chemical environment) would be one chance in 10^100,000,000,000. You will have probably have trouble imagining a number so large, so Hugh Ross provides us with the following example. If all the matter in the Universe was converted into building blocks of life, and if assembly of these building blocks were attempted once a microsecond for the entire age of the universe. Then instead of the odds being 1 in 10^100,000,000,000, they would be 1 in 10^99,999,999,916 (also of note: 1 with 100 billion zeros following would fill approx. 20,000 encyclopedias) here
  • The formation within geological time of a human body by the laws of physics (or any other laws of similar nature), starting from a random distribution of elementary particles and the field, is as unlikely as the separation by chance of the atmosphere into its components.”
    Kurt Gödel, was a preeminent mathematician/logician who is considered one of the greatest to have ever lived.
  • Ten steps are necessary in the course of human evolution, each of which, is so improbable that if left to happen by chance alone, the sun would have ceased to be a main sequence star and would have incinerated the earth. They estimate that the odds of the evolution (by chance) of the human genome is somewhere between 4 to the negative 180th power, to the 110,000th power, and 4 to the negative 360th power, to the 110,000th power. Therefore, if evolution did occur, it literally would have been a miracle and evidence for the existence of God. Source William Lane Craig; Barrow and Tippler’s book The Anthropic Cosmological Principle

Scientists are saying we may have a new species here on earth Homoslackasserectus

Mutations Prove Evolution Has Major Flaws

According to the neo-Darwinian evolutionists, mutations are needed to produce the evolutionary changes in Darwin’s theory.

Mutations are real; and are something we observe; BUT they do make changes in traits, such as the changes Evolution describes from molecules to man.

– Mutations Are Contrary To Evolution –Evolution (things becoming more ordered) and mutations (things becoming more disordered) are processes going in opposite directions! Mutations are random changes in the genetic makeup of organisms.

  • Fortunately, mutations are very rare. They occur on an average of perhaps once in every ten million duplications of a DNA molecule (107, a one followed by seven zeroes). That’s fairly rare. On the other hand, it’s not that rare. Our bodies contain nearly 100 trillion cells (1014). So the odds are quite good that we have a couple of cells with a mutated form of almost any gene. A test tube can hold millions of bacteria, so, again, the odds are quite good that there will be mutant forms among them. The mathematical problem for evolution comes when you want a series of related mutations. The odds of getting two mutations that are related to one another is the product of the separate probabilities: one in 107 x 107, or 1014. That’s a one followed by 14 zeroes, a hundred trillion! Read more at Answers In Genesis

-35 Year Mutation Study Of Fruit Flies Fails Miserably –“This research really upends the dominant paradigm about how species evolve”… as stated in regards to the 35 year experimental failure to fixate a single beneficial mutation within fruit flies” Source -Experimental Evolution in Fruit Flies – October 2010 arn.org

For example, taken from, (Unlocking the Mysteries of Creation, Dennis R. Petersen) fruit flies have been subjected to radiation and chemicals, which caused mutations in the flies. If you take a human generation to be 25 years, this is equal to around 37 500 years (1500 x 25) in human terms. What happened to these mutated flies over this time? Firstly, they were still flies and had not evolved into anything else, but more importantly, the flies as a population were worse off with many dying, having deformed wings.

  • “Advantageous anatomical mutations are never observed. The four-winged fruit fly is a case in point: The second set of wings lacks flight muscles, so the useless appendages interfere with flying and mating, and the mutant fly cannot survive long outside the laboratory. Similar mutations in other genes also produce various anatomical deformations, but they are harmful, too. In 1963, Harvard evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr wrote that the resulting mutants “are such evident freaks that these monsters can be designated only as ‘hopeless.’ They are so utterly unbalanced that they would not have the slightest chance of escaping elimination through natural selection.” -Jonathan Wells –evolutionnews.org

3 BILLION Base Pairs Are Needed For Human Genes – 1. It Would Be A Miracle For The Amount Needed, 2. There Simply Isn’t Enough Time – The actual rate for ‘truly’ beneficial mutations, which would account for the staggering machine-like complexity we see in life, is far in excess of one-hundred-billion-billion mutational events. So this one in a thousand, to one in a million, number for ‘truly’ beneficial mutations is actually far, far, too generous for an estimate for evolutionists to use as an estimate for beneficial mutations.

  • A calculation by geneticist John Sanford for ‘fixing’ a beneficial mutation, or for creating a new gene, in humans, shows how absurd evolution is. Dr. Sanford calculates it would take 12 million years to “fix” a single base pair mutation into a population. He further calculates that to create a gene with 1000 base pairs, it would take 12 million x 1000 or 12 billion years. This is obviously too slow to support the creation of the human genome containing 3 billion base pairs. Source –detectingtruth.com
  • “I have seen estimates of the incidence of the ratio of deleterious-to-beneficial mutations which range from one in one thousand up to one in one million. The best estimates seem to be one in one million (Gerrish and Lenski, 1998). The actual rate of beneficial mutations is so extremely low as to thwart any actual measurement (Bataillon, 2000, Elena et al, 1998). Therefore, I cannot …accurately represent how rare such beneficial mutations really are.” (J.C. Sanford; Genetic Entropy page 24) – 2005
  • “For example, McBride criticizes me for not mentioning genetic drift in my discussion of human origins, apparently without realizing that the result of Durrett and Schmidt rules drift out. Each and every specific genetic change needed to produce humans from apes would have to have conferred a significant selective advantage in order for humans to have appeared in the available time (i.e. the mutations cannot be ‘neutral’). Any aspect of the transition that requires two or more mutations to act in combination in order to increase fitness would take way too long (>100 million years).My challenge to McBride, and everyone else who believes the evolutionary story of human origins, is not to provide the list of mutations that did the trick, but rather a list of mutations that can do it. Otherwise they’re in the position of insisting that something is a scientific fact without having the faintest idea how it even could be.” Doug Axe PhD. Thou Shalt Not Put Evolutionary Theory to a Test – Douglas Axe – July 18, 2012 evolutionnews.org
  • Haldane’s dilemma is a limit on the speed of beneficial evolution, first calculated by J. B. S. Haldane in 1957 – He calculated that in man it would take 6 million years to fix just 1,000 mutations (assuming 20 years per generation). Man and chimp differ by at least 150 million nucleotides representing at least 40 million hypothetical mutations (Britten, 2002). So if man evolved from a chimp-like creature, then during that process there were at least 20 million mutations fixed within the human lineage (40 million divided by 2), yet natural selection could only have selected for 1,000 of those. All the rest would have had to been fixed by random drift – creating millions of nearly-neutral deleterious mutations. This would not just have made us inferior to our chimp-like ancestors – it surely would have killed us. Since Haldane’s dilemma there have been a number of efforts to sweep the problem under the rug, but the problem is still exactly the same. ReMine (1993, 2005) has extensively reviewed the problem, and has analyzed it using an entirely different mathematical formulation – but has obtained identical results. Source -Haldane’s Dilemma John Sanford PhD. – “Genetic Entropy and The Mystery of the Genome” – pg. 159-160

-DNA Mutations Just Don’t Support “Macroevolution” – “But there is no evidence that DNA mutations can provide the sorts of variation needed for evolution… There is no evidence for beneficial mutations at the level of macroevolution, but there is also no evidence at the level of what is commonly regarded as microevolution.” Jonathan Wells (PhD. – Molecular Biology)

Could Chance Arrange the Code for (Just) One Gene? “our minds cannot grasp such an extremely small probability as that involved in the accidental arranging of even one gene (10^-236).” creationsafaris.com

– Small Changes? Mutations Data Just Isn’t There- “The neo-Darwinians would like us to believe that large evolutionary changes can result from a series of small events if there are enough of them. But if these events all lose information they can’t be the steps in the kind of evolution the neo-Darwin theory is supposed to explain, no matter how many mutations there are. Whoever thinks macroevolution can be made by mutations that lose information is like the merchant who lost a little money on every sale but thought he could make it up on volume.”Lee Spetner (Ph.D. Physics – MIT – Not By Chance)

Evolution -Thousands And Thousands Of Miracles- “The opportune appearance of mutations permitting animals and plants to meet their needs seems hard to believe. Yet the Darwinian theory is even more demanding: a single plant, a single animal would require thousands and thousands of lucky, appropriate events. Thus, miracles would become the rule: events with an infinitesimal probability could not fail to occur. There is no law against day dreaming, but science must not indulge in it.” Pierre P. Grasse – past President of the French Academie des Sciences

– Mutations Are Shown To Get Worse Over Time, Not Better -We know by the Second Law of Thermodynamics (when things are left to themselves they become more disordered over time) show that mutations are not a friend of evolution but an enemy that ultimately cuts the theory down and destroys it!

  • “To propose and argue that mutations even in tandem with ‘natural selection’ are the root-causes for 6,000,000 viable, enormously complex species, is to mock logic, deny the weight of evidence, and reject the fundamentals of mathematical probability.” Cohen, I.L. (1984) Darwin Was Wrong: A Study in Probabilities –veritas-ucsb.org
  • “Mutations are rare phenomena, and a simultaneous change of even two amino acid residues in one protein is totally unlikely. One could think, for instance, that by constantly changing amino acids one by one, it will eventually be possible to change the entire sequence substantially… These minor changes, however, are bound to eventually result in a situation in which the enzyme has ceased to perform its previous function but has not yet begun its ‘new duties’. It is at this point it will be destroyed – along with the organism carrying it.” Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetski, Unraveling DNA, 1997, p. 72. (Professor at Brown U. Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering)
  • “Stunningly, information has been shown not to increase in the coding regions of DNA with evolution. Mutations do not produce increased information. Mira et al (65) showed that the amount of coding in DNA actually decreases with evolution of bacterial genomes, not increases. This paper parallels Petrov’s papers starting with (66) showing a net DNA loss with Drosophila evolution (67). Konopka (68) found strong evidence against the contention of Subba Rao et al (69, 70) that information increases with mutations. The information content of the coding regions in DNA does not tend to increase with evolution as hypothesized. Konopka also found Shannon complexity not to be a suitable indicator of evolutionary progress over a wide range of evolving genes. Konopka’s work applies Shannon theory to known functional text. Kok et al. (71) also found that information does not increase in DNA with evolution. As with Konopka, this finding is in the context of the change in mere Shannon uncertainty. The latter is a far more forgiving definition of information than that required for prescriptive information (PI) (21, 22, 33, 72). It is all the more significant that mutations do not program increased PI. Prescriptive information either instructs or directly produces formal function. No increase in Shannon or Prescriptive information occurs in duplication. What the above papers show is that not even variation of the duplication produces new information, not even Shannon “information.” Source -The Genetic Selection Principle – David L. Abel – 2009 Bio Science
  • “The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution”: – Michael Behe – December 2010 Excerpt: In its most recent issue The Quarterly Review of Biology has published a review by myself of laboratory evolution experiments of microbes going back four decades.,,, The gist of the paper is that so far the overwhelming number of adaptive (that is, helpful) mutations seen in laboratory evolution experiments are either loss or modification of function. Of course we had already known that the great majority of mutations that have a visible effect on an organism are deleterious. Now, surprisingly, it seems that even the great majority of helpful mutations degrade the genome to a greater or lesser extent.,,, I dub it “The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution”: Break or blunt any functional coded element whose loss would yield a net fitness gain.(that is a net ‘fitness gain’ within a ‘stressed’ environment i.e. remove the stress from the environment and the parent strain is always more ‘fit’)- find it here
  • -Oxford University Admits Darwinism’s Shaky Math Foundation May 2011 Excerpt: “However, mathematical population geneticists mainly deny that natural selection leads to optimization of any useful kind. This fifty-year old schism is intellectually damaging in itself, and has prevented improvements in our concept of what fitness is. – On a 2011 Job Description for a Mathematician, at Oxford, to ‘fix’ the persistent mathematical problems with neo-Darwinism within two years. Source
  • -Human Mutation ImpossibilityWaiting Longer for Two Mutations – Michael J. Behe Excerpt: (White 2004) “I had noted that the de novo appearance of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was an event of probability of 1 in 10^20. I then wrote that ‘for humans to achieve a mutation like this by chance, we would have to wait 100 million times 10 million years’ (1 quadrillion years)(Behe 2007) (because that is the extrapolated time that it would take to produce 10^20 humans). Durrett and Schmidt (2008, p. 1507) retort that my number ‘is 5 million times larger than the calculation we have just given’ using their model (which nonetheless “using their model” gives a prohibitively long waiting time of 216 million years). Their criticism compares apples to oranges. My figure of 10^20 is an empirical statistic from the literature; it is not, as their calculation is, a theoretical estimate from a population genetics model”- Source
  • Mutations Show Loss Of FunctionLenski’s e-coli – Analysis of Genetic Entropy
    Excerpt: Mutants of E. coli obtained after 20,000 generations at 37°C were less “fit” than the wild-type strain when cultivated at either 20°C or 42°C. Other E. coli mutants obtained after 20,000 generations in medium where glucose was their sole catabolite tended to lose the ability to catabolize other carbohydrates. Such a reduction can be beneficially selected only as long as the organism remains in that constant environment. Ultimately, the genetic effect of these mutations is a loss of a function useful for one type of environment as a trade-off for adaptation to a different environment. Source Lenski’s e-coli After 50,000 generations Excerpt: After having identified the first five beneficial mutations combined successively and spontaneously in the bacterial population, the scientists generated, from the ancestral bacterial strain, 32 mutant strains exhibiting all of the possible combinations of each of these five mutations. They then noted that the benefit linked to the simultaneous presence of five mutations was less than the sum of the individual benefits conferred by each mutation individually.- Source
  • Mutations Confirm Holes In EvolutionGenetic Entropy Confirmed (in Lenski’s e-coli) – June 2011 Excerpt: No increases in adaptation or fitness were observed, and no explanation was offered for how neo-Darwinism could overcome the downward trend in fitness. Source
  • A study confirmed the detrimental mutation rate for humans, of 100 to 300 per generation, estimated by John Sanford in his book ‘Genetic Entropy’ in 2005
  • Every time human DNA is passed from one generation to the next it accumulates 100–200 new mutations, according to a DNA-sequencing analysis of the Y chromosome. (Of note: this number is derived after “compensatory mutations” Human mutation rate revealed: August 2009- Nature.com
  • This more recent study found a slightly lower figure: We Are All Mutants: First Direct Whole-Genome Measure of Human Mutation Predicts 60 New Mutations in Each of Us – June 2011 Science Daily This ‘slightly detrimental’ mutation rate of 100 to 200, or even 60, per generation is far greater than even what evolutionists agree is an acceptable mutation rate for an organism.
  • Mutations- Species Risk ExtinctionShakhnovich’s group found that for most organisms, including viruses and bacteria, an organism’s rate of genome mutation must stay below 6 mutations per genome per generation to prevent the accumulation of too many potentially lethal changes in genetic material. Science Daily
  • “Why have we not died 100 times over? Kondrashov A.S. – Contamination of the genome by very slightly deleterious mutations: – Source ingentaconnect.com
  • “Unfortunately, it has become increasingly clear that most of the mutation load is associated with mutations with very small effects distributed at unpredictable locations over the entire genome, rendering the prospects for long-term management of the human gene pool by genetic counseling highly unlikely for all but perhaps a few hundred key loci underlying debilitating monogenic genetic disorders (such as those focused on in the present study) Sanford’s pro-ID thesis September 2010 Source -Uncommondescent.com
  • ” Most mutations in the genes of the Salmonella bacterium have a surprisingly small negative impact on bacterial fitness. And this is the case regardless whether they lead to changes in the bacterial proteins or not…… using extremely sensitive growth measurements, doctoral candidate Peter Lind showed that most mutations reduced the rate of growth of bacteria by only 0.500 percent. No mutations completely disabled the function of the proteins, and very few had no impact at all. Even more surprising was the fact that mutations that do not change the protein sequence had negative effects similar to those of mutations that led to substitution of amino acids. A possible explanation is that most mutations may have their negative effect by altering mRNA structure, not proteins, as is commonly assumed” Unexpectedly Small Effects Of Mutations In Bacteria Bring New Perspectives – November 2010 Source –physorg.com
  • To get around the problem of slightly detrimental mutations, that are below the power of Natural Selection to remove from the genome, Darwinists have tried to relabel the slightly detrimental mutations as ‘neutral’, but the fact is that if a mutation is ‘just sitting there’, not doing anything, then it is in reality placing a energetic burden on the cell and is not truly ‘neutral’ but is in fact slightly detrimental.
  • “When first cousins marry, their children have a reduction of life expectancy of nearly 10 years. Why is this? It is because inbreeding exposes the genetic mistakes within the genome (slightly detrimental recessive mutations) that have not yet had time to “come to the surface”. Inbreeding is like a sneak preview, or foreshadowing, of where we are going to be genetically as a whole as a species in the future. The reduced life expectancy of inbred children reflects the overall aging of the genome that has accumulated thus far, and reveals the hidden reservoir of genetic damage that have been accumulating in our genomes.” Sanford; Genetic Entropy; page 147
  • “Fossil human bones show that men were much stronger in the past. Neanderthals were ancient people who lived in caves ranging mostly from Europe to Israel. “One of the most characteristic features of the Neanderthals is the exaggerated massiveness of their trunk and limb bones. All of the preserved bones suggest a strength seldom attained by modern humans. The Genetic Decline of Humanity by Brian Thomas, M.S.
  • Anthropologist Peter McAllister researched fossil human footprints in Australia and found that whoever made those tracks had more speed than champion sprinter Usain Bolt. Also, European Paleolithic sites show that humans were larger then and have experienced a “marked decline in stature” from which they have not yet recovered. ICR
  • “At least 80% of the mutations had a significant negative effect on fitness, whereas none of the mutations had a significant positive effect” Source- Distribution Of Fitness Effects Caused By Random Insertion Mutations In Escherichia Coli Springerlink.com
  • John Sanford did a simple literature search via Biological Abstracts and Medline. He found 453,732 ‘mutation’ hits, but among these only 186 mentioned the word ‘beneficial’ (about 4 in 10,000). When those 186 references were reviewed, almost all the presumed ‘beneficial mutations’ were only beneficial in a very narrow sense–but each mutation consistently involved loss of function changes–hence loss of information. -I do not doubt there are beneficial mutations as evidenced by rapid adaptation yet I contest the fact that they build meaningful information in the genome instead of degrade preexisting information in the genome.” “Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome”: “Bergman (2004) (pp. 26-27) trueorigin.org

-Vestigial Organs Has Been Proven Wrong- It was proposed that vestigial organs were organs in the body that were left over from evolutionary development, and were thought to be useless. In the 1800’s, evolutionists listed 180 vestigial organs in the human body. The functions for all have now been found. The tonsils, and appendix, both which were commonly removed for years because of this assumption, now have been found that both now known to fight disease. According to evolution, if an organ has lost its value, it should, over time, vanish completely. There has been enough time to lose these “vestigial” organs, but we still have them. In fact, vestigial organs prove loss, not evolutionary progression. If evolution was true, we would then see NEW organs forming for useful purposes, not “old ones” dying out.

  • The appendix, like the once ‘vestigial’ tonsils and adenoids, is a lymphoid organ (part of the body’s immune system) which makes antibodies against infections in the digestive system. Believing it to be a useless evolutionary ‘left over,’ many surgeons once removed even the healthy appendix whenever they were in the abdominal cavity. Today, removal of a healthy appendix under most circumstances would be considered medical malpractice (David Menton, Ph.D., “The Human Tail, and Other Tales of Evolution,” St. Louis MetroVoice , January 1994, Vol. 4, No. 1).
  • Doctors once thought tonsils were simply useless evolutionary leftovers and took them out thinking that it could do no harm. Today there is considerable evidence that there are more troubles in the upper respiratory tract after tonsil removal than before, and doctors generally agree that simple enlargement of tonsils is hardly an indication for surgery” (J.D. Ratcliff, Your Body and How it Works, 1975, p. 137).
  • The tailbone, properly known as the coccyx, is another supposed example of a vestigial structure that has been found to have a valuable function—especially regarding the ability to sit comfortably. Many people who have had this bone removed have great difficulty sitting. Source ucg.org
  • Removal Of Appendix and Tonsils Are At Risk of A Heart Attack- The surgical removal of the appendix and tonsils before the age of 20 was associated with an increased risk of premature heart attack in a large population study performed in Sweden. Tonsillectomy increased the risk by 44% (hazard ratio 1.44) and appendectomy by 33% (HR 1.33). The risk increases were just statistically significant, and were even higher when the tonsils and appendix were both removed. Medical Press
  • Darwinian Evolution Vs. Intelligent Design in Medical Research Video See it here

Evolution’s Mistakes

How Did They Come Up With Man’s 9 “predecessors.” – Source thegoodreporters.blog

1. Neanderthal Man-Discovered in Germany in 1856. The “find” consisted of a skull and several bones.
2. Peking Man- Found in China in 1921. This “find” consisted of 30 skulls and 147 teeth. They strangely disappeared in 1941.
3. Nebraska Man- This “man” was created from the finding of ONE tooth! This tooth was used to prove evolution in the famous “Scopes Monkey Trial.” After the trial, however, it was discovered that this tooth belonged to an extinct pig!
4. Southern Ape- Found in South Africa in 1924. The “find” was a skull.
5. Rama Pithecus-Found in India in 1932. “Find” consisted of parts of a jaw and a handful of teeth.
6. East Africa Man- Found in 1959 by Louis Leakey. Consisted of a skull cap and a few bone fragments.
7. Cro-Magnon Man- Fragments of four skeletons found in 1868.
8. Java Man- “Find” consisted of a single skull cap, thigh bone and 2 molar teeth.
9. Piltdown Man- Found were a skull part and a few teeth, in 1912.
If someone gave you a jaw bone and a few teeth, could you draw a picture of what that person looked like and be so dogmatic about it that you would publish it as fact?

– One Chance In 2.3 x 10 BILLION VIGINTILLION -What is the probability of creating a protein by chance, as Evolution claims? All functions in a living organism are based largely upon the structures of its proteins. Hubert Yockey published a monograph on the microbiology, information theory, and mathematics necessary to accomplish that action. Accordingly, the probability of evolving one molecule of iso-1-cytochrome c, (a small protein common in plants and animals), it is an astounding one chance in 2.3 times ten billion vigintillion. The magnitude of this impossibility may be appreciated by realizing that ten billion vigintillion is one followed by 75 zeros. Or to put it in evolutionary terms, if a random mutation is provided every second from the alleged birth of the universe, then to date that protein molecule would be only 43% of the way to completion. From Evolution Is Biologically Impossible ICR

– What number is after vigintillion –WikiAnswers

-Some Notes on Big Numbers –John Savard’s Home Page

– Law of Small Probability -More from the article Evolution Is Biologically Impossible ICR, The Origin Of Life was put to the test with more stringent criteria. What is the chance of evolving one molecule of one protein? Dembski estimated 1080 elementary particles in the universe and asked how many times per second an event could occur. He found 1045. He then calculated the number of seconds from the beginning of the universe to the present and for good measure multiplied by one billion for 1025 seconds in all. He thereby obtained 1080 x 1045 x 1025 = 10150 for his Law of Small Probability. Anything as rare as that probability had absolutely no possibility of happening by chance at any time. ICR

Sir Arthur Eddington

This is a cross section of a single blade of grass

-A Random Assembly Of A Cell? Impossible – A cell, at minimum, has 60,000 proteins of which there are 100 different configurations. There are, on top of this, very complex cells and an enumeration of cell types. The chance of the random, un-orchestrated assembly of a cell is one chance in more than 104,478,296, a number that numbs the mind because it has 4,478,296 zeros. If we consider one chance in 10150 as the standard for impossible, then the evolution of the first cell is more than 104,478,146 times more impossible in probability than that standard- Source ICR

  • According to Emile Borel, a French scientist and expert in the area of probability, an event on the cosmic level with a probability of less than 1 out of 10, to the 50th power, will not happen. The probability of producing one human cell by chance is 10, to the 119,000 power.
  •  If we assume some minimally complex cell requires 250 different proteins then the probability of this arrangement happening purely by chance is one in 10 to the 164th multiplied by itself 250 times or one in 10 to the 41,000th power. Signature in the Cell -Ken Peterson Source

-If Evolution Was To Occur- It Would Be A Miracle -Barrow and Tipler, two physicists in their book The Anthropic Cosmological Principle list ten steps in the course of human evolution, each of which is so improbable that before it would occur,- the sun would have ceased to be a main sequence star and incinerated the earth. They calculate the probability of the evolution of the human genome to be somewhere between four to the negative 180th power to the 110,000th power and four to the negative 360th power to the 110,000th power. So, if evolution did occur on this planet it was literally a miracle, and therefore evidence for the existence of God. Dr. William Lane Craig (rebuttal), Christopher Hitchens vs. Dr. William Lane Craig: Does God Exist?, April 4, 2009, Biola University

  • Professor Harold Morowitz shows the Origin of Life ‘problem’ escalates dramatically over the 1 in 10^40,000 figure when working from a thermodynamic perspective, “The probability for the chance of formation of the smallest, simplest form of living organism known is 1 in 10^340,000,000. This number is 10 to the 340 millionth power! The size of this figure is truly staggering since there is only supposed to be approximately 10^80 (10 to the 80th power) electrons in the whole universe! (Professor Harold Morowitz, Energy Flow In Biology pg. 99, Biophysicist of George Mason University)

– DNA, in and of itself, Refutes Evolution– Without the “1st cell” that evolution is absolutely dependent on, all subsequent arguments for evolution are then dismissed. – See this article “Study Demonstrates Complex Cells Could Not Evolve from Bacteria” – Creation Revolution

  • DNA Sequences Question Evolution TheoryThe next evolutionary synthesis: Jonathan BL Bard (2011) Excerpt: We now know that there are at least 50 possible functions that DNA sequences can fulfill, that the networks for traits require many proteins and that they allow for considerable redundancy. The reality is that the evolutionary synthesis says nothing about any of this; for all its claim of being grounded in DNA and mutation, it is actually a theory based on phenotypic traits. This is not to say that the evolutionary synthesis is wrong, but that it is inadequate – it is really only half a theory!- Source
  • The Next Evolutionary Synthesis: From Lamarck and Darwin To Genomic Variation And Systems Biology- Excerpt: If more than about three genes (nature unspecified) underpin a phenotype, the mathematics of population genetics, while qualitatively analyzable, requires too many unknown parameters to make quantitatively testable predictions . The inadequacy of this approach is demonstrated by illustrations of the molecular pathways that generates traits: the network underpinning something as simple as growth may have forty or fifty participating proteins whose production involves perhaps twice as many DNA sequences, if one includes enhancers, splice variants etc. Theoretical genetics simply cannot handle this level of complexity, let alone analiyse the effects of mutation.. Bio Signaling
  • “A Dutch zoologist, J.J. Duyvene de Wit, clearly demonstrated that the process of speciation (such as the appearance of many varieties of dogs and cats) is inevitably bound up with genetic depletion as a result of natural selection. When this scientifically established fact is applied to the question of whether man could have evolved from ape-like animals,’.. the transformist concept of progressive evolution is pierced in its very vitals.’ The reason for this, J.J. Duyvene de Wit went on to explain, is that the whole process of evolution from animal to man ” ‘ . . would have to run against the gradient of genetic depletion. That is to say, . . man should possess a smaller gene-potential than his animal ancestors! Here, the impressive absurdity becomes clear in which the transformist doctrine [the theory of evolution] entangles itself when, in flat contradiction to the factual scientific evidence, it dogmatically asserts that man has evolved from the animal kingdom!” —Op. cit., pp. 129-130. J.J. Duyvene de Wit, A New Critique of the Transformist Principle in Evolutionary Biology (1965), p. 56,57.] Source godrules.net
  • Genetic Similarity Between Chimps And Humans Is Far Below 99% Orginally Given:” For the chimp autosomes, the amount of optimally aligned DNA sequence provided similarities between 66 and 76%, depending on the chromosome. In general, the smaller and more gene-dense the chromosomes, the higher the DNA similarity—although there were several notable exceptions defying this trend. Only 69% of the chimpanzee X chromosome was similar to human and only 43% of the Y chromosome. Genome-wide, only 70% of the chimpanzee DNA was similar to human under the most optimal sequence-slice conditions. While, chimpanzees and humans share many localized protein-coding regions of high similarity, the overall extreme discontinuity between the two genomes defies evolutionary timescales and dogmatic presuppositions about a common ancestor. Comprehensive Analysis of Chimpanzee and Human Chromosomes Reveals Average DNA Similarity of 70% – by Jeffrey P. Tomkins – February 20, 2013 here
  • The information density in the nucleus is trillions of times higher than on a computer chip — while avoiding the knots and tangles that might interfere with the cell’s ability to read its own genome. Moreover, the DNA can easily unfold and refold during gene activation, gene repression, and cell replication. Source -3-D Structure Of Human Genome: Fractal Globule Architecture Packs Two Meters Of DNA Into Each Cell – Oct. 2009 sciencedaily.com
  • DNA is the best information storage mechanism known to man. A single pinhead of DNA contains as much information as could be stored on 2 million two-terabyte hard drives.Source -creation.com

DNA? What About Other Highly Organized Body Function Plans?

Stephen Meyer – Functional Proteins And Information For Body Plans – video here

Dr. Stephen Meyer comments at the end of the video:

  • ‘Now one more problem as far as the generation of information. It turns out that you don’t only need information to build genes and proteins, it turns out to build Body-Plans you need higher levels of information; Higher order assembly instructions. DNA codes for the building of proteins, but proteins must be arranged into distinctive circuitry to form distinctive cell types. Cell types have to be arranged into tissues. Tissues have to be arranged into organs. Organs and tissues must be specifically arranged to generate whole new Body-Plans, distinctive arrangements of those body parts. We now know that DNA alone is not responsible for those higher orders of organization. DNA codes for proteins, but by itself it does insure that proteins, cell types, tissues, organs, will all be arranged in the body. And what that means is that the Body-Plan morphogenesis, as it is called, depends upon information that is not encoded on DNA. Which means you can mutate DNA indefinitely. 80 million years, 100 million years, til the cows come home. It doesn’t matter, because in the best case you are just going to find a new protein some place out there in that vast combinatorial sequence space. You are not, by mutating DNA alone, going to generate higher order structures that are necessary to building a body plan. So what we can conclude from that is that the neo-Darwinian mechanism is grossly inadequate to explain the origin of information necessary to build new genes and proteins, and it is also grossly inadequate to explain the origination of novel biological form.’ – Stephen Meyer – (excerpt taken from Meyer/Sternberg vs. Shermer/Prothero debate – 2009)
  • And this is only the construction of proteins we’re talking about. It leaves out of the picture entirely the higher-level components — tissues, organs, the whole body plan that draws all the lower-level stuff together into a coherent, functioning form. What we should really be talking about is not a lone piano but a vast orchestra under the directing guidance of an unknown conductor fulfilling an artistic vision, organizing and transcending the music of the assembly of individual players” Epigenetics and the “Piano” Metaphor – January 2012 evolutionnews.org

Information And Programming Existed At The Very Beginning

  • “The original species had a greater genetic potential to adapt to all possible environments. In the course of time this broad capacity for adaptation has been steadily reduced in the respective habitats by the accumulation of slightly deleterious alleles (as well as total losses of genetic functions redundant for a habitat), with the exception, of course, of that part which was necessary for coping with a species’ particular environment….By mutative reduction of the genetic potential, modifications became “heritable”. –– As strange as it may at first sound, however, this has nothing to do with the inheritance of acquired characteristics. For the characteristics were not acquired evolutionarily, but existed from the very beginning due to the greater adaptability. In many species only the genetic functions necessary for coping with the corresponding environment have been preserved from this adaptability potential. The “remainder” has been lost by mutations (accumulation of slightly disadvantageous alleles) — in the formation of secondary species. A. L. Hughes’s New Non-Darwinian Mechanism of Adaption Was Discovered and Published in Detail by an ID Geneticist 25 Years Ago – Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig – December 2011evolutionnews.org
  • Underlying the central dogma and conventional views of genome evolution was the idea that the genome is a stable structure that changes rarely and accidentally by chemical fluctuations (106) or replication errors. This view has had to change with the realization that maintenance of genome stability is an active cellular function and the discovery of numerous dedicated biochemical systems for restructuring DNA molecules.(107–110) Genetic change is almost always the result of cellular action on the genome. These natural processes are analogous to human genetic engineering,,, (Page 14) Genome change arises as a consequence of natural genetic engineering, not from accidents. Replication errors and DNA damage are subject to cell surveillance and correction. When DNA damage correction does produce novel genetic structures, natural genetic engineering functions, such as mutator polymerases and nonhomologous end-joining complexes, are involved. Realizing that DNA change is a biochemical process means that it is subject to regulation like other cellular activities. Thus, we expect to see genome change occurring in response to different stimuli Revisiting the Central Dogma in the 21st Century – James A. Shapiro – 2009 (Page 12).shapiro.bsd.uchicago.ed
  • Principle states that biological selection must occur at the nucleotide-sequencing molecular-genetic level of 3’5′ phosphodiester bond formation. After-the-fact differential survival and reproduction of already-programmed, already-living phenotypic organisms (natural selection) does not explain polynucleotide sequence prescription and coding. All life forms depend upon exceedingly-optimized genetic algorithms. Biological control requires selection of particular physicodynamically indeterminate configurable switch settings to achieve potential function. This occurs largely at the level of nucleotide selection, prior to the realization of any isolated or integrated biofunction. Each selection of a nucleotide corresponds to a quaternary (four-way) switch setting. Formal logic gates must be set initially that will only later determine folding and binding function through minimum Gibbs-free energy sinks. The fittest living organisms cannot be favored until they are first programmed and computed. The Genetic Selection Principle distinguishes selection of existing function (undirected natural selection) from selection for potential function (formal selection at decision nodes, logic gates and configurable switch settings). Source -The Genetic Selection (GS) Principle – David L. Abel uncommondescent.com
  • Minimal metabolism would be needed for cells to be capable of growth and division. All known metabolism is cybernetic–that is, it is programmatically and algorithmically organized and controlled.-Chance and necessity do not explain the origin of life. Trevors JT, Abel DL. – 2004 here

-Bile Lining In The The Digestive System If Not There Would Destroy Life– If we were to take away the bile lining our digestive system, the stomach acid would burn through the cell lining, and thus leak into the rest of the body, and be detrimental to survival. Therefore, if the process of evolution takes billion of years, if an unprotected cell dropped in this acid, it would be instantly killed. Early cells that might try to contain this acid or who merely come in contact with this acid will be instantly killed. Evolution cannot explain how stomach acid ended up in the first stomach.

-The Structure of Protons in the Nucleus- Protons, being of like charge, naturally repel each other. Speeds needed for nuclear fusion does not occur naturally in nature. We attempt to produce nuclear fusion, and even then, the process is not 100% efficient (during the process, protons bounce off of each other). Everything that is alive contains carbon. Period. Carbon has 6 protons. Those protons are held together by nuclear forces, which attract protons to each other when they are extremely close. Any one micrometer farther apart, and the protons split. How can, with repelling protons and with the lack of naturally occurring nuclear fusion, carbon have formed? In addition, how can anything with an atomic number (atomic number=number of protons) of 2 or higher have formed? The answer to this question is that it is frankly impossible. Big bang theories have attempted to explain this. The Big Bang can be boiled down to: nothing took itself, and made something from nothing. Information taken from Irrefutable Facts Against Evolution

– Punctuated Equilibria, is another guess by evolutionists that could explain why there is no transitional fossils in the geological record. Doctors Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge have formed the theory of punctuated equilibria. Many top evolutionists disagree with this position, because it really is laughable. One example of this a bird giving birth to a mammal. How silly is this! Another mammal of the same kind of the opposite sex must be born in the same area in order for the new species to continue. The odds of just one organism appearing this way, let alone two fulfilling the circumstances above, are astronomical.

Fossils Tell A VERY Clear Account……

-Vigorous Searching Still Shows NO Transitional Fossils– Despite over a hundred years of intensive world wide research into the fossil record, the ‘missing links’ are still well and truly ‘missing’. If evolution was true, there should be large numbers of intermediate fossil organisms present in the fossil record. In a letter to Luther Sunderland, dated April 10, 1979, Dr. Colin Patterson, of the British Museum of Natural History, wrote: “…I fully agree with your comments on the lack of direct illustration of evolutionary transitions in my book. If I knew of any, fossil or living, I would certainly have included them. You suggest that an artist should be used to visualize such transformations, but where would he get the information from? I could not, honestly, provide it, and if I were to leave it to artistic license, would that not mislead the reader?”

When Does Fossilization Happen? To create fossils, you need a quick burial and the right conditions. Evolutionists like to tell us that at least thousands of years are needed to form the fossils and fuels (such as coal and oil) that we find today. However, objects must be buried rapidly in order to fossilize. Ken Ham, director of the Australia-based Creation Science Foundation, presents some interesting facts in seminars which he gives. Oil can now be made in a few minutes in a laboratory. Black coal can also be formed at an astonishing rate.

-What About Polystrate Fossils? The term is often used to describe fossils that intersect several rock beds. How can this happen if layers are millions of years old? These fossils, which are often upright trees, support rapid layers forming quickly. Vertical fossils intersecting several rock layers are a common occurance. How do evolutionists explain this? View some pictures here to get an idea of what we are talking about.

-How About Fossils That Sit Vertical Through the Million Year Layers??? Fossils which are positioned sticking though multiple ‘layers’ proves those layers were laid down rapidly, not over millions of years where those fossils would never survive that process. If rock layers took millions of years to form, they wouldn’t be found bent, but instead we find multiple rock layers many feet thick that are bent.

– Fossils On Mountain Peeks All Over The World are evidence of a global flood and certainly falsifying the belief that drastic mountain forming could move fossils from below sea level to the tops of the highest mountains intact.

Earlier, Newer Species Appearing In Older Layers Would Disprove Evolution- Steven M. Stanley,of Johns Hopkins University has this to say, There is an infinite variety of ways in which, since 1859, the general concept of evolution might have been demolished. Consider the fossil record–a little known resource in Darwin’s day. The unequivocal discovery of a fossil population of horses in Precambrian rocks would disprove evolution. More generally, any topsy-turvy sequence of fossils would force us to rethink our theory, yet not a single one has come to light. As Darwin recognized, a single geographic inconsistency would have nearly the same power of destruction.” (The New Evolutionary Timetable, 1981, p.171)

Dinosaur And Human Footprints Destroy The Evolution Theories

Dinosaur bones and human footprints found in the same area are highly controversial because they shatter Evolution theories. Evolutions suggest we humans have arrived here on earth through a process of evolution from a bacterium to fish to amphibians to apes after which we split off from the apes to become human. This process is supposed to happen over billions of years. Yet again, we see another blow to evolution. Note, that the term “dinosaur” is a modern term. These creatures were called dragons, and they appear in art work in ancient civilizations around the world.

– Human Footprints And Dinosaur Footprints in Paluxy River– Footprints were found along with those of a dinosaur in limestone near the Paluxy River in Texas. Dinosaur footprints have been observed in the Paluxy River since the early 1900’s. They were rediscovered in 1938 by self taught paleontologist Raymond T. Bird [1899-1978] after a 100 year flood. Dinosaur bone collagen and the calcium carbonate fraction of dinosaur bones from Texas (Paluxy River) to Alaska (Colville River) have been C-14 dated in the range of 23,000 to 33,000 C-14 years. Burnt wood imbedded in the bottom of the Paluxy river was also dated at 12,800 years and carbonized wood specimens in the 3 inches of clay between the limestone strata at 37,500 C-14 years. Yet main stream dating methods suggest the strata is 108 Million years.

-McFall & Taylor Trail Dinosaur And Human Footprints – The Taylor trail shows 14 human-like footprints in the river about 100 yards south of the McFall ledges that appear to weave in and out of a dinosaur trail. These two trails have both dinosaur and human foot prints. There is one particular footprint which has a human footprint inside of a dinosaur footprint. This shows that humans and dinosaurs existed recently and in the same period, which evolution is quite contradictory to.

  • From a NOVA TV Special,”God, Darwin And The Dinosaurs, “…dinosaur footprints, side by side with humans. Finding them would counter evidence that humans evolved long after the dinosaurs became extinct and back up…[the] claim that all species, including man, were created at one time.
  • -Richard Dawkins, of Oxford said this….. “alleged human bones in the Carboniferous coal deposits. If authenticated as human, these bones would blow the theory of evolution out of the water.” (Free Inquiry, V.21, No.4, 10/11/2001)
  • -Richard Dawkins, of Oxford said this “...there are certain things about the fossil record that any evolutionist should expect to be true. We should be very surprised, for example, to find fossil humans appearing in the record before mammals are supposed to have evolved! If a single, well verified mammal skull were to turn up in 500 million year old rocks, our whole modern theory of evolution would be utterly destroyed. Incidentally, this is a sufficient answer to the canard, put about by creationist and their journalistic fellow travelers, that the whole theory of evolution is an ‘unfalsifiable’ tautology. Ironically, it is also the reason why creationists are so keen on the fake human footprints, which were carved during the depression to fool tourists, in the dinosaur beds of Texas, (The Blind Watchmaker, 1986, p.225)
  • Louis Jacobs- Former President of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology,co-occurrence of men and dinosaurs. Such an association would dispel an Earth with vast antiquity. The entire history of creation, including the day of rest, could be accommodated in the seven biblical days of the Genesis myth. Evolution would be vanquished. (In Quest of the African Dinosaur, p.261)

Read more -Dinosaur And Human Co-existance and Footprints-dinosaurc14ages.com There are many other places in the world where human and dinosaur footprints have been found. For a discussion another set of footprints you can go to this website. or this website.

Masses Move To Intelligent Design, If So, Who Is The Designer?

The certainty of design has been demonstrated beyond doubt,which forces many people to embrace that a “designer” exists. Who that designer is, is the debate we will be facing in the years as more evidence for creation becomes very apparent.

It seems to be a very consistent trend in scientific journals, from athiests, and those who embrace evolution to point to Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence as the answer to who created us.

– Yet, virtually nothing is known about them, yet on the other hand we have spectacular evidence for the Christianity.

Modern Day Assumptions That Give Credit to Aliens

“Two hungry young galaxies (ten times the size of the Milky Way) that collided 11 billion years ago are rapidly forming a massive galaxy about 10 times the size of the Milky Way, astronomers have discovered. dailymail.co.uk

Professor Walter J. Veith is a Zoologist; in this lecture he shares some GREAT information you can use when dealing with evolutionists: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJ3IgGYf29k

EVIDENCE FOR Creation and The Bible

– The Bible Gives Us A Frame Work Of What To Expect In The Natural- It touches on History, Science, Mathematics AND Medicine. While it isn’t meant to be a science text book, it gives is startling scientific statements that have only discovered in the most modern times with the advancement of technology:

  • Hydrothermal Vents were written in the Bible 3,000 years before their discovery, Genesis 7:11, Job 38:16 (How many people knew what hydrothermal vents were 60 years ago?)
  • 2 Pet 3:10 Describes Nuclear Weaponry which couldn’t be known in 67AD.
  • Fluid Dynamics described in Job 28:25 (The fact that air has weight was proven scientifically only about 300 years ago)
  • Hydrologic Cycle, Ps 135:7, Jer 10:13, Job 36:27 (These verses site several phases of the hydrologic cycle: evaporation, translation aloft by atmospheric circulation, condensation with electrical discharges, and precipitation)
  • Paleontology– (Dinosaurs)-Job 40 Anthropology– Cave Men, Job 30:5.
  • The Existence of Water Paths (Ocean Currents) in the Seas (Psalm 8:1,3,6,8).
  • The Concept of Entropy (Psalm 102:22-26).
  • The Shape of the Earth, Isaiah 40:22 (written 680BC),
  • Suspension of the Earth Job. 26:7, (Which once was against the common thought).
  • The Stars are Innumerable ,”(Job. 26:7, NIV). (Only about 3,000 can be seen with the naked eye. We have seen estimates of (10 to the 21power) stars. (The number of grains of sand on the earth’s seashores is estimated to be (10 to the 25th power)
  • Each Star is Unique- 1 Cor 15:41.
  • The Existence of Valleys in the Seas (Gen. 15:5, NIV).
  • The Existence of Springs and Fountains in the Seas Gen. 8:2; Prov. 8:28.
  • Meteorology (Circulation of the Atmosphere)-Ecc 1:6.
  • Movement of The Universe-Jer 31:35,36.
  • Condensation Facts: Job 26:8, Job 37:11,
  • Earths Crust -Jer:31:37
  • The Nature of Health, Sanitation, and Sickness (Leviticus 12-14) (Even up to 1845, doctors would wash their hands in bowls of water. Doctors laughed at Dr Ignaz Semmelweis’s germ theory which gained widespread acceptance after his death. The bible proclaimed this microscopic fact in 1440BC.) There is a unique story behind each of these discoveries which was proven thousands of years ago in the bible. The bible, again, is supernaturally breathed on by God.

– We Can Trust The Text Of The Bible- The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in A.D. 1947 provided an incredible proof for the authenticity and reliability of the Old Testament. The Scrolls comprise some 800 documents in tens of thousands of fragments. They confirm word for word identical to the Hebrew Bible.

  • More Than Five Thousand (5000+) Manuscripts Were Used To Compile The New Testament. These texts are also referred to as the Textus Receptus. Since 99.9% of these manuscripts agree, we can be comforted knowing that the words we read from are ACCURATE and true to the words which were originally written down. Bibles based on the 5000+ manuscripts are the King James Bible,Coverdale Bible,Geneva Bible, and theBishop’s Bible
  • When was the New Testament Considered Scripture? Paul’s letters were already considered scripture in the mid 1st century. The apostle Peter called Paul’s letters Scripture, seen in Peter 3:14-16. The apostle Paul, writing between A.D. 62 and A.D. 65, quoted Luke 10:7 and called it Scripture. Irenaeus, writing about 170 A.D., also tells us that the four-fold gospel was already a rock solid fact at that time. The gospels certainly were NOT picked out in the 4th century. The fact of the four-fold gospel is also reflected in the “Muratorian Fragment” which was written about the same time (around 170 A.D.) that Irenaeus was writing. The Muratorian Fragment lists for us almost the entire New Testament canon. The document may have indeed been a complete list of New Testament books, but we only have a portion of the ancient document. While we do not have the very beginning of the document or the very end of the document, the portion of the document that we do have tells us that there are FOUR (and only four) gospels. We have approximately 50 manuscripts of the New Testament that PRE-DATE the Roman takeover of the established church in the 4th century.
  • We Have More Than 32 THOUSAND New Testament Quotations From The Early Church writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries. In fact, we could recreate virtually the entire New Testament just from the quotes of the early church writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries. We can be QUITE certain that the New Testament we have today has come down to us just as it was from the earliest days, and we can be QUITE certain what the early Christians of the 2nd and 3rd centuries considered to be Scripture.
  • Many Other Classical Document Copies Pale To What We Have Of The NT. No other document of ancient times even begins to approach the numbers of copies that we have of the New Testament. (Caesar’s writings-Only 10 copies), (Tacitus writings-20 copies) and (Plato’s writings- 7 copies which are 1200 years older) We have more than 24,000 manuscript copies of portions of the New Testament in existence. (5,300 Greek manuscripts + 10,000 Latin Vulgate + 9,300 other early versions)
  • Harvard graduate Ivan Panin generated over 50 years, 43,000 pages of the numerical mathematical structure within the scriptures.
  • Luke mentions details about the offices and titles of officials of the Roman Empire. In every case he gets it right, as confirmed by archaeological discoveries many centuries later.One of the most remarkable tokens of (Luke’s) accuracy is his sure familiarity with the proper titles of all the notable persons who are mentioned . . . Cyprus, for example, which was an imperial province until 22 BC, became a senatorial province in that year, and was therefore governed no longer by an imperial legate but by a proconsul. And so, when Paul and Barnabas arrived in Cyprus about AD 47, it was the proconsul Sergius Paullus whom they met . . .” (F.F. Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable?, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1973, p. 82).

Prophecy Makes The Bible Unique With More Than 2,500 Prophecies appear in the pages of the Bible, about 2000 of which already have been fulfilled to the letter—no errors. No other faith has specific, repeated, and unfailing fulfillment of predictions many years in advance of contingent events over which the predictor had no control.

  • 500 or so of the prophecies left talk about the future, which many believe we will see unfold in our time and day. The odds for all these prophecies having been fulfilled by chance without error is less than one in 102000 (that is 1 with 2000 zeros written after it)!
  • A Remarkable Prophecy Predicts The EXACT day, 490 Years In Advance.Writing in about 607 BC, the Prophet Daniel predicted the exact date the Messiah (Yeshua) would ride into Jerusalem on a colt. Who else claiming to be the Messiah, and doing many wondrous miracles rode into Jerusalem on the foal of a donkey on Palm Sunday, April 6, 32 A.D.?

Some time before 500 B.C. the prophet Daniel proclaimed that Israel’s long-awaited Messiah would begin his public ministry 483 years after the issuing of a decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem (Daniel 9:25-26). He further predicted that the Messiah would be “cut off,” killed, and that this event would take place prior to a second destruction of Jerusalem. The decree regarding the restoration of Jerusalem was issued by Persia’s King Artaxerxes to the Hebrew priest Ezra in 458 B.C., 483 years later the ministry of Yeshua began in Galilee. Yeshua’s crucifixion occurred only a few years later, and about four decades later, in 70 A.D. came the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.

A few more without making this article too lengthy….

The Succession of Great World Kingdoms (Daniel 2:37-42) Even negative critics agree that Daniel foretold the governments in order of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome TODAY. In Daniel 2:1-3 His dream gives us a “disclosure of God’s plan for the ages till the final triumph of Christ” and “presents the foreordained succession of world powers that are to dominate the Near East till the final victory of the Messiah in the last days” (Expositor’s Bible, pp. 39, 46).

Cyrus King of Persia (Isaiah 44:28-45:1). Since Isaiah lived between about 740 and 690 BC and Cyrus did not make his proclamation for Israel to return from exile until about 536 (Ezra 1), there would have been no human way for him to know what Cyrus would be named or what Cyrus would do.

Israel to Be Returned to Its Land A Second Time (Isaiah 11:11-12). The first time God reclaimed a people was from Egypt through the Exodus; the second time is from the Babylonian Exile (Isaiah 51:9-11)

The Closing of the Golden Gate (Ezekiel 44:2-3). The Golden Gate is the eastern gate of Jerusalem, through which Christ made his triumphal entry on Palm Sunday before the crucifixion (Matthew 21). Ezekiel predicted its closing and in 1543 Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent closed the gate and walled it up, not knowing he was fulfilling prophecy. It remains sealed to this day exactly as the Bible predicted.

The Destruction of Tyre (Ezekiel 26:3-14). The prophecy was partly fulfilled when Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the city and left it in ruins. Alexander the Great later attacked the seemingly impregnable Island of Tyre by taking the stones, dust, and timber from the ruined mainland city to build a causeway to the Island. This prophecy is comparable to saying that Chicago will be destroyed and never rebuilt.

The Doom of Edom (Petra) (Jeremiah 49:15-17). Given the virtually impregnable nature of the ancient city carved out of rock and protected by a narrow passageway, this was an incredible prediction. Yet, in 636 AD it was conquered by Muslims and today stands deserted but for tourists.

Destruction of Jerusalem (Mark 13:1-2). Fulfilled literally when the Romans completely destroyed Jerusalem and the temple buildings. According to historian and eyewitness Josephus, some of the stones were 37 feet long, 12 feet high and 18 feet wide. Stones were even pried apart to collect the gold leaf that melted from the roof when the temple was set on fire.

The Unique Messiah Fortold In The Scriptures

The Messiah would have had 456 identifying characteristics. Yeshua fulfilled all the prophecies which talked about the Messiah’s first coming. There are a few that talk about his second coming, which are waiting to be fulfilled.

  • Yeshua Was Born Through A Very Particular Family line as it was prophecied in the Old Testament. Humans, you and I , have NO CONTROL over which family we are born into. They have calculated the odds of 1 in 10,000 Messiah had to come from the nation of Israel, and had to be of the tribe of Judah. In addition, he had to be of the family of David. (2 Samuel 7:12-16; Jeremiah 23:5; Psalm 89:3-4) He would be a descendant of Abraham’s son, Isaac, not Ishmael (Gen. 17; 21). Then Through the lines of Isaac, (Gen. 17; 21) Through the lines of Jacob , not Esau (Gen. 28; 35:10-12; Num. 24:17). Even greater, he would be a descendant of the family of Jesse in the tribe of Benjamin (Isaiah 11:1-5). Fulfilled:in the genealogy seen in Matthew 1 and Luke 3:23-38
  • Prophecy also tells us that GOD picked the city of Bethlehem for the Messiah to be born in. Again, we have no control over which family, let alone the city we will be born in. They calculated the odds of this to be 1 Chance in 100,000)

Yeshua DID NOT manipulate events to fulfill prophecy Such as The Place of the Messiah’s birth (Micah 5:2). , The Date of the Messiah’s birth (Daniel 9:25). Manner of birth of the Messiah (Isaiah 7:14), The Manner of death of the Messiah (Zechariah 12:10; Psalm 22:16 prophesied before the invention of crucifixion). , Piercing in side of that Messiah (Zechariah 12:10).The Details of the Burial of the Messiah(Isaiah 53:9).Executers dividing up Yeshua’s clothes after he died on the cross

  • Feasts, and Festivals of Early Believers Were In Fact Prophecies (Dress Rehearsals) Of Major Events Celebrated, – the Date the Messiah would come to this world, the DATE he would die, The Date He would Return again, The Date of The Holy Spirit’s pouring out, and The Date of the Resurrection. (Tabernackles,Passover,First Fruits, Pentecost) tell of Yeshua’s first coming, while (Feast of Trumpets, Atonement) tell of his second coming. Passover was fulfilled to the very hour. The timing was astonishing.
  • Yeshua Fulfilled Over 300 Prophecies– Professor Emeritus of Science at Westmont College, Peter Stoner, has calculated the probability of one man fulfilling the major prophecies made concerning the Messiah. Twelve different classes representing some 600-university students worked out the estimates. 1 in (10 157POWER) that one man could fulfill even 48 (F O U R T Y – e i g h t ) of these Old Testament prophecies.

Just remember that Yeshua fulfilled over 300! Finally, he submitted his figures for review to a committee of the American Scientific Affiliation. Upon examination, they verified that his calculations were dependable and accurate in regard to the scientific material presented (Peter Stoner, Science Speaks, Chicago: Moody Press, 1969, 4).

Over 500 Witnesses Saw Yeshua After He Was Raised From The Dead- Josephus, a 1st century historian, (apart from the disciples or acquaintances) records, “For Jesus appeared to them the third day alive again, as the holy prophets had predicted”

  • One of the earliest records of Christ’s appearing after the resurrection was by Paul. The apostle stated that Christ had been seen by more than 500 people at one time. Paul reminded them that the majority of those people were still alive and could be questioned. Yeshua appeared 12 times to different group sizes ranging from just one person to 500 people.
  • Dr. Edwin M. Yamauchi, associate professor of history at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, emphasizes:What gives a special authority to the list (of witnesses) as historical evidence is the reference to most of the five hundred brethren being still alive. St. Paul says in effect, ‘If you do not believe me, you can ask them.’ Such a statement in an admittedly genuine letter written within thirty years of the event is almost as strong evidence as one could hope to get for something that happened nearly two thousand years ago.” Let’s take the more than 500 witnesses who saw Jesus alive after His death and burial, and place them in a courtroom. Do you realize that if each of those 500 people were to testify for only six minutes, including cross-examination, you would have an amazing 50 hours of firsthand testimony? Add to this the testimony of many other eyewitnesses and you would well have the largest and most lopsided trial in history.

-An Earthquake and Eclipse Happened While Jesus Was On The Cross- This has been documented by 13 Non-biblical sources. The darkness was noted all around the world. It happened from 12 noon to 3 pm when Yeshua died. Mt 27.51 “the earth shook and the rocks split.” 27.54 “When the centurion and those with him saw the earthquake and all that had happened, they were terrified and exclaimed, ‘Surely he was the Son of God!’

  • A prophecy recorded before Yeshua was born by Amos predicted a cloudless day solar darkening that would commence at noon. It had been recorded during the reign of King Uzziah of Judah, several centuries before Jesus Christ. It has been interpreted as a prophecy for the crucifixion darkness:And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day (Amos 8:9).The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the Lord come (Joel 2:31).5.

An Eclipse Could NOT Occur During This Time

  • Thallus, a Samaritan historian, wrote ca. 52 A.D. Mara Bar-Seraphon wrote a letter to his son in 73 A.D. which tells of the deaths of Socrates, Pythagoras, and of Jesus. Thallus, in the third book of his histories, explains away this darkness as an eclipse of the Sun’– unreasonably, as it seems to me” and he explains “…unreasonably, of course, because a solar eclipse could not take place at the time of the full Moon, and it was at the season of the Paschal full Moon that Christ died.”
  • The 3rd-century Christian historian Sextus Julius Africanus, in a section of his work surviving in quotation by George Syncellus, stated that the chronicler Thallus had called the darkness during the crucifixion a solar eclipse. Africanus objected based on the fact that a solar eclipse could not occur during Passover; the earth was between the sun and the moon during that holiday. sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov

Non-Biblical Sources Who Also Saw Darkness :

A. The church historian Eusebius of Caesarea (264 – 340), in his Chronicle, cited a statement of the 2nd-century chronicler Phlegon of Tralles that during the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 32/33) “a great eclipse of the sun occurred at the sixth hour that excelled every other before it, turning the day into such darkness of night that the stars could be seen in heaven, and the earth moved in Bithynia, toppling many buildings in the city of Nicaea“. In the same passage, Eusebius cited another unnamed Greek source also recording earthquakes in the same locations and an eclipse. Eusebius argued the two records had documented events that were simultaneous with the crucifixion of Jesus.

B. Phlegon, Olympiades, fragment 17 mentions an eclipse: ‘In the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad, and eclipse of the Sun took place greater than any previously known, and night came on at the sixth hour of the day, so that stars actually appeared in the sky; and a great earthquake took place in Bithynia and overthrew the greater part of Niceaea.”

C. The Letter from Pontius Pilate to Tiberius claimed the darkness had started at the sixth hour, covered the whole world and, during the subsequent evening, the full moon resembled blood for the entire night.[[4]] The Archko Volume, a 19th-century forgery purporting to be a collection of ancient documents concerning Jesus, contains a report by Pontius Pilate about the crucifixion events

D. The Gospel of Peter contained another extra-biblical reference to the darkness, stating that the darkness began at midday, covered the whole of Judaea, and led people to go about with lamps believing it to be night.

E. Other aprocryphal works contain briefer accounts of the crucifixion darkness. The Gospel of Bartholomew stated darkness had accompanied the crucifixion of Christ.

F. In a letter written under the name Dionysius the Areopagite , the author claims to have observed a solar eclipse from Heliopolis, Egypt at the time of the crucifixion.

G. Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) had a version of the Cosmological Argument called the Argument from Motion. He stated that things in motion could not have brought themselves into motion, but must be caused to move. There cannot be an infinite regression of movers. Therefore, there must be an Unmoved Mover. This Unmoved Mover is God.

H. Julius Africanus, writing around 221 AD found a reference in the writings of Thallus, who wrote a history of the Eastern Mediterranean around 52 AD, which dealt with the darkness that covered the land during Jesus’s crucifixion

I. Phlegon, another first Century historian, is mentioned by Origen in “Contra Celsum”: Philopon says: “And about this darkness . . . Phlegon recalls it in the “Olympiads” (the title of his history).” He says that “Phlegon mentioned the eclipse which took place during the crucifixion of the Lord Christ, and no other (eclipse), it is clear that he did not know from his sources about any (similar) eclipse in previous times . . . and this is shown by the historical account of Tiberius Caesar itself.”

J. Phlegon, Olympiades, fragment 17 mentions an eclipse: ‘In the fourth year of the 202nd Olympiad, and eclipse of the Sun took place greater than any previously known, and night came on at the sixth hour of the day, so that stars actually appeared in the sky; and a great earthquake took place in Bithynia and overthrew the greater part of Niceaea.” That would be AD 32-33, which is incorrect. He could have referred to AD 29, which would have been the first year of the olympiad.

K. Julius Africanus also mentioned Phlegon. His “Chronicles” have been lost, but a small fragment of that work confirms the darkness upon the earth at the crucifixion. After his (Africanus) remarks about Thallus’ unreasonable opinion of the darkness Hhe quotes Phlegon that “during the time of Tiberius Caesar an eclipse of the Sun occurred during the full Moon.”

L. Tertullian, in his Apologeticus, provided a brief description of the darkness that had commenced at noon during the crucifixion. He also indicated that those who were unaware of the prediction for the noontide onset of darkness had called it an eclipse.

M. Gospel of Nicodemus, known as the Acts of Pilate, Christ’s Descent into Hell, and The Paradosis, refer to a variety of physical phenomena accompanying the crucifixion and the subsequent executive responses by Caesar. According to Chapter XI of the Acts of Pilate, the darkness had started at midday; lasted three hours, and had been caused by the darkening of the Sun. It also stated Pilate and his wife were disturbed by a report of what had happened. The Judeans he had summoned said it was an ordinary solar eclipse. The Christ’s Descent into Hell described the many dead men who had arisen and had appeared to many in Jerusalem shortly after the resurrection of Christ. And, the Paradosis presented the interrogations in Rome by Caesar and his subsequent decree of severe punishment against both Pilate and the Judeans for causing the darkness and earthquake that had fallen upon the whole world.

-The Holy Temple Had A Curtain Separating the Holy Place- At the Very moment of Yeshua’s death the Curtain was torn in half. The curtain was 60 feet in height, 30 feet in width and 4 inches thick. The tearing of the Temple curtain was a statement that the separation between God and a Holy God was at an end. The sacrifices performed by the High Priest were no longer necessary, since Christ (the ultimate passover Lamb) died for the sins of the world.

  • The size and thickness of the veil makes so much more momentous the events described as occurring at the exact moment of Jesus’ death upon a cross nearly 2000 years ago. Josephus documents that the veil was four inches thick, and that horses tied to each side could not pull the veil apart.
  • Non -Biblical Evidence For The Torn Curtain:

1. Roman historian Tacitus (Hist. V. 13),
2. Jewish historian Josephus (Wars of the Jews VI, 5, 3)
3. Jewish Talmud (Jer. Yoma 43c; Yoma 39b) all make reference to some “great catastrophe, betokening the impending destruction of the Temple, (that) had occurred in the Sanctuary about this very time.”

Prophecy Odds

Resources:

– Evolution Hoax- Jesus is Savior

– 7 Reasons Why Evolution Falls Short –Changing Lives Online

– Why Does Ancient Art Contain Depictions Of Flying Aircraft, Helicopters And Dinosaurs? –The Truth Wins

– Fact Check: Did Bill Nye Tell A Huge Lie About The Fossil Layers?- The Truth Wins

– Does A Belief In Evolution Lead To Racism? –The Truth Wins

-44 Reasons Why Evolution Is Just A Fairy Tale For Adults- The Truth Wins

-Evolution Is Biologically Impossible – Institute For Creation Research

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Meranda Devan

Meranda Devan

When I am not busy writing for whygodreallyexists.com, I am changing diapers, feeding the baby, making supper, and juggling our websites while doing the laundry.

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  • lisa trifone

    Len, sources please….I am interested in whether these have truly been debunked – even just a few sources would be appreciated.